The Thames Torso Murders of Victorian London - R. Michael Gordon - Google книги
But it is not wrong to raise the less cultural question whether after Auschwitz you can go on living. The only way out of this aporia lies in a creative form of self-denial. Therefore, testimony itself is to be recognized primarily as an ethically necessary act of quasi-redemptive fiction, as an act of creativity by the survivors on behalf of those others who perished. Or should we rather understand writing now as an attempt to make the impossible possible or real?
Crisis is always a moment that simultaneously imposes change and creativity.
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It is a period of transition, paving the way for the new. Henri Meschonnic expresses very succinctly the necessity of crisis for all creation: La crise est permanente. Il faut le casser pour penser. This has always been the case. Crisis is the very condition and the history of concepts and strategies. The conceptual cannot be made without unmaking itself.
As soon as it establishes itself it becomes power, it becomes an obstacle to itself. One has to break it in order to make thoughts. This volume examines this connection in the specific and radical context of literary production after the Holocaust, as well as charting the ongoing consequences of the issues of this period for poetics. In his book Modernity and the Holocaust, Zygmunt Bauman posited the thesis that the Holocaust was no accident in, but rather an expression of modernity and its culture of Enlightenment.
He affirms: The Holocaust was conceived and realised in the midst of modern rational society, in a highly developed civilisation and in the context of extraordinary cultural performances: it must therefore be considered a problem of this same society, civilisation and culture. Consequently, more fundamental changes are clearly necessary if we are to prevent other such catastrophes, which by now presumably have the potential to destroy the world completely. It is not simply a question of political structures, then; a way of thinking in general seems to be the issue.
The problem of an enlightened modernity compromised by National Socialism and the Holocaust, and the devastating implications for the German rational mind as such, remain unresolved. Poetics, however, has the potential to show the way forward here, offering new ways of dealing with this past, paths that lead out of the aporia of instrumental reason. The question may well plunge one into despair. In short, the afterword offers us the thesis of Dialectics of Enlightenment personified, in the human form of the father of the man responsible for the Holocaust. Humanism now takes on a Janusfaced aspect, the noble aim of perfecting humankind being coupled here to its technical manipulation.
Humanism, at the latter, obscene end of its development, opens the door, then, to a way of thinking that considers human beings in terms of bio-political strategies. This flaw still haunts humanist ideals today. And if so, how does or did this crisis generate new potential? The challenge is to develop new and alternative literary and artistic approaches that convert the violent exclusions of this image into an absence within the image, readmitting, in a way, those who are absent, their extinguished lives and acts of expression, allowing them a sort of presence in their own right, albeit, perhaps only at the very margins of our awareness, and never to be re-presented completely.
The final section deals with the central question as viewed from elsewhere in Europe, focusing on the cases of France and Yugoslavia. They are interpreted in this chapter as products of the unconscious, which not only reflect terror, persecution, and propaganda but form part of a system of pressure that penetrates even the privacy of sleep.
In the second section of the book, which deals with the wider discourse on postwar poetics, going beyond the realm of those who are driven by the ethos of the witness, the first two articles deal with Gottfried Benn, whose poems and poetology had a profound impact on German poetry in the second half of the twentieth century. The last study of the collection takes the volume into the sphere of intermediality. Munich: C. Beck , All the features of a civilization are revealed or laid bare.
Cassirer, of course, saw this dynamic in the positive sense of a return to the eternal rights of man. Though our technical capacity for depicting the extremest event is in place, it has outstripped the possibility of thinking conceptually. Subsequent references to this text are quoted using Hartman and page numbers. Rolf Tiedemann Suhrkamp: Frankfurt am Main, , See also Lyrik nach Auschwitz? Adorno und die Dichter, ed. Petra Kiedaisch Stuttgart: Reclam, , Leopold Wiese zum Geburtstag, ed.
Rolf Tiedemann Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, , Subsequent references to this work will be quoted in the text using Negative Dialektik and page numbers; also in Lyrik nach Auschwitz?
Subsequent references to this work will be quoted in the text using Negative Dialectics and page numbers. It operates as dialectic response to the deterministic approach of bourgeois cultural critique. Subsequent references to this work will be quoted in the text using Nancy and page numbers. Der Briefwechsel.
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Wiedemann, letter from 21 September Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, , Dan Diner Fischer: Frankfurt am Main, Petra Kiedaisch Stuttgart: Reclam, Daniel Heller-Roazen ; repr. New York: Zone books, We must dare to express it using all possible new means because the old methods no longer suffice. This suffering demands the continued existence of the very art it forbids.
It scarcely finds a voice anywhere else. Adorno recognized the formidable task confronting writers attempting to find new literary tools to express the horror of the Shoah in artistic form. Both were acutely aware of the dilemma facing the post-Shoah artist: the absolute necessity of giving voice to the suffering and the impossibility of doing so adequately. In much of her poetry Nelly Sachs engages with this post-Auschwitz dilemma. Even the most extreme consciousness of doom threatens to degenerate into idle chatter.
Cultural criticism finds itself faced with the final stage of the dialectic of culture and barbarism: to write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric, and this even corrodes the knowledge of why it has become impossible to write poetry today. The artist, that is, fails to recognize the entrenchment of a reification process of which he too forms part. This in turn renders the notion of artistic subjectivity intrinsically problematic, since figurative discourse, by its very nature subjective, cannot be reconciled with the reality of this reification process. The Nazis created an in-between state; living skeletons, decomposing wretches for whom even suicide would go wrong.
Negative Dialektik [With the murder of millions as an administrative measure, death has become something never before feared in this manner. The fact that the specimen, not the individual, died in the death camps, must of necessity also affect the dying of those who escaped the administrative measure. Freiheit des Subjekts mehr gibt. Absolute lack of freedom cannot be represented. Reinhart Baumgart has taken a resolute stance in this regard. If it does it becomes an aesthetic lie and morally hypocritical. Max Frisch provides a disturbing description of this anomaly: Die blosse dumpfe Bestie, die nichts anderes kann und kennt, ist nicht das Ungeheuerliche; denn sie ist leicht zu erkennen.
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Ungeheuerlich scheint mir die Bestie mit dem Geist. For a long time many of us held on to the comforting notion that this nation was made up of two categories of people: those who play Mozart and those who burn people. After all, poems written before Auschwitz, as Caygill comments, did not prevent it, so how could those written in its aftermath be called upon to prevent its repetition?
They are belied by the catastrophe of that society from which they emerged. For Adorno, if art is to claim any kind of ethical legitimacy, then it cannot be as it was before Auschwitz. Not only has the medium of language become thoroughly tainted as a result of its misappropriation for murderous purposes, subjectivity is now also inherently problematic.
Art thus cannot be as before and yet the suffering must be voiced in art. It is not the legitimacy of the artistic rendering of the Shoah that is at issue but the attempt, however futile, to find the appropriate artistic tools to do so. For Adorno, art regains validity by reflecting and engaging with its own impossible status even if the extremity of the reification process means that this reflection cannot be carried out in any meaningful way.
He calls for art to be self-referentially wary of itself, of its form and of its means of representation. Noten [By means of the principle of aesthetic stylization the unimaginable fate of the victims appears as having had some kind of sense after all; it becomes transfigured, some of the horror is softened, and that already involves doing an injustice to the victims.
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